Additional Resources for RBD

Below are some helpful resources and studies about REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

About RBD

Learn more about REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. 

for Diseases
Related to RBD

Additional resources
for these diseases.

Media Coverage
of RBD

Explore helpful news coverage of the disorder.

If you Think you
Might Have RBD...

...but it has not been diagnosed officially, you will need to see a sleep doctor at an accredited sleep center. Please contact us or search here for an accredited sleep doctor near you.

Search for Ongoing
Clinical Trials is a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world.

Media Coverage of RBD

Dador, Denise. "'Night Terrors' Often Misdiagnosed", ABC7 Eyewitness News 20 Apr. 2009.

Dador, Denise. "REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Could Lead to Dementia", ABC7 Eyewitness News 18 July 2014.

Kim, Margot. "Mysterious Sleep Disorders"ABC30 Action News 8 Aug. 2014.

Mayo Clinic. "Acting Out Dreams Linked to Development of Dementia, Mayo Clinic Study Finds"Mayo Clinic News Network 19 Mar. 2013.

Streed, Joel. "REM Sleep Disorder Doubles Risk Of Mild Cognitive Impairment/Parkinson’s"Mayo Clinic News Network 13 Mar. 2012.

Information About RBD

Overview of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a sleep disorder in which you physically act out vivid, often unpleasant dreams... Read more here.

Online Neurolearn course about REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
The purpose of this program is to provide neurologists in practice with the knowledge needed to recognize, diagnose and treat RBD... Learn more here.

Textbook About RBD: Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder
Editors: Schenck, Carlos H., Hogl, Birgit, Videnovic, Aleksandar. Springer, 2018.
ISBN 978-3-319-90152-7

Primer on RBD
Dauvilliers Y, Schenck CH, Postuma RB, Iranzo A, Luppi P, Plazzi G, Montplaisir J, and Boeve B. REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. (2018) 4:19.

Scientific Papers on RBD Written by
NAPS Consortium Team Members

General Information on RBD

Avidan, Alon and Porter, VR. "Overview of REM Behavioral Sleep Disorder: Clinical Manifestations, Pathophysiology and Current Treatment Options." Seminars in Neurology. 2017. Online.

Boeve, Bradley. "REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Updated Review of the Core Features, the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder-Neurodegenerative Disease Association, Evolving Concepts, Controversies, and Future Directions." Annals of the  New York Academy of Sciences. 2009. Online

Boeve, Bradley and St Louis, Erik. "REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Diagnosis, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2017. Online.

St Louis, Erik. "Key sleep neurologic disorders: Narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease, and REM sleep behavior disorder." Neurology Clinical Practice. 2014. Online.

"Virtual Issue on REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." Sleep. Ed. Carlos Schenck. Vol. 41, Issue 2, 2018. Online.

Link With Neurodegenerative Disease

Arnaldi D, Antelmi E, St Louis, Erik, Postuma RB, and Arnulf I. "Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Risk: To Tell or not to Tell to the Patient? How to Minimize the Risk?" Sleep Medicine Reviews. Vol. 36, Pgs. 82-95, 2017. Online. 

Boeve, Bradley. "Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder in the Development of Parkinson's Disease." The Lancet. 2013. Online.

Boeve , Bradley, Silber MH, Saper CB, Ferman TJ, Dickson DW, Parisi JE, Benarroch EE, Ahlskog JE, Smith GE, Caselli RC, Tippman-Peikert M, Olson EJ, Lin SC, Young T, Wszolek Z, Schenck, Carlos, Mahowald MW, Castillo PR, Del Tredici K, Braak H. "Pathophysiology of REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Relevance to Neurodegenerative Disease." Brain. 2007. Online.

Howell, Michael and Schenck, Carlos. "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Disease."  JAMA Neurology. Vol 27, No. 6, 2015. Online.

Malhotra R, Avidan, Alon. "Neurodegenerative Disease and REM Behavior Disorder."  Current Treatment Options in Neurology. Vol. 14, Issue 5. pgs. 474-492, 2012. Online. 

McCarter SJ, St Louis, Erik, and Boeve Bradley. "REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and REM Sleep  Without Atonia as an Early Manifestation of Degenerative Neurological Disease." Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2012. Online. 

Postuma, Ronald, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Fantini ML, Massicotte-Marquez J, Montplaisir J. "Quantifying the Risk of Neurodegenerative Disease in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." Neurology. 2009. Online. 

St Louis, Erik, Boeve AR, and Boeve, Bradley. "REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease and Other Synucleinopathies." Movement Disorders. Vol. 32, No. 5, 2017. Online.

Clinical Features and Case Series

Bliwise Donald, Rye DB. "Elevated PEM (Phasic Electromyographic Metric) Rates
Identify Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder Patients on Nights Without
Behavioral Abnormalities."
 SLEEP, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2008. Online.

Ju, Yo-El, Larson-Prior L, Duntley S. "Changing Demographics in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Possible Effect of Autoimmunity and Antidepressants." Sleep Medicine. 2011. Online.

McCarter SJ, St Louis Erik, Boeve, Bradley, Sandness DJ, Silber MH. "Greatest Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Atonia Loss in Men and Older Age." Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2014. Online.

McCarter SJ, St Louis,  Erik, Sandness DJ, Arndt KA, Erickson MK, Tabatabai GM, Boeve Bradley, Silber MH. "Antidepressants Increase REM Sleep Muscle Tone in Patients With and Without REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." SLEEP, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2015. Online.

McCarter SJ, St Louis, Erik, Sandness DJ, Duwell EJ, Timm PC, Boeve , Bradley, Silber MH. "Diagnostic REM Sleep Muscle Activity Thresholds in Patients with Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder With and Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea." Sleep Medicine. 2016. Online. 

McCarter SJ, St Louis, Erik, Duwell EJ, Timm PC, Sandness DJ, Boeve, Bradley, Silber MH. "Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle Activity, and REM Atonia Index in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder With and Without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea." SLEEP, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2014. Online.

McCarter SJ, St Louis. Eril, Boswell CL, Dueffert LG, Slocumb N, Boeve, Bradley, Silber MH, Olson EJ, Morgenthaler TI, Tippmann-Peikert M. "Factors Associated with Injury in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." Sleep Medicine. 2014. Online.

Neme, S. and Avidan, Alon. Ed. N. Foldvary-Schaefer, K. Budur, and J. Krishna "Clinical Overview of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." A Case a Week: Sleep Disorders from the Cleveland Clinic. 2010. Print. 

Olson EJ, Boeve, Bradley, Silber MH. "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder: Demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Findings in 93 Cases." Brain. Pgs. 331-339. 2000. Online. 


Aurora RN, Zak RS, Maganti RK, Auerbach SH, Casey KR, Chowdhuri S, Karippot A, Ramar K, Kristo DA, Morgenthaler TI; Standards of Practice Committee; American Academy of Sleep Medicine. "Best Practice Guide for the Treatment of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)."  Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol.6, No. 1, 2010. Online.

Batalini F, Avidan, Alon, Moseley BD, Ringman JM. "Improvement of Dream Enactment Behavior Associated With Levetiracetam Treatment in Dementia With Lewy Bodies." Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders. 2016. Print.

McCarter SJ, Boswell CL, St Louis, Erik, Dueffert LG, Slocumb N, Boeve. Bradley, Silber MH, Olson EJ, Tippmann-Peikert M. "Treatment Outcomes in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder." Sleep Medicine. 2013. Online.

McGrane IR, Leung JG, St Louis, Erik, Boeve, Bradley. "Melatonin Therapy for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Critical Review of Evidence." Sleep Medicine. 2014. Online. 

Trial Planning

Boeve, Bradley; Molano JR; Ferman TJ; Lin Siong- Chi; Bieniek K; Tippmann-Peikert M; Boot B; St. Louis, Erik; Knopman DS; Petersen RC; Silber MH. "Validation of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire to Screen for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in a Community-Based Sample."  Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2013. Online. 

Postuma, Ronald, Gagnon JF, Bertrand JA, Génier Marchand D, Montplaisir JY.
"Parkinson Risk in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Preparing for
Neuroprotective Trials."
 Neurology. 2015. Online.

Schenck, C, Montplaisir JY, Frauscher B, Hogl B, Gagnon JF, Postuma R, Sonka K, Jennum P, Partinen M, Arnulf I, Cochen de Cock V, Dauvilliers Y, Luppi PH, Heidbreder A, Mayer G, Sixel-Döring F, Trenkwalder C, Unger M, Young P, Wing YK,  Ferini-Strambi L, Ferri R, Plazzi G, Zucconi M, Inoue Y, Iranzo A, Santamaria J,  Bassetti C, Möller JC, Boeve B, Lai YY, Pavlova M, Saper C, Schmidt P, Siegel JM, Singer C, St Louis E, Videnovic A, Oertel W. "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Devising Controlled Active Treatment Studies for Symptomatic and Neuroprotective Therapy--a Consensus Statement From the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group." Sleep Medicine. 2014. Online.